There is a need to explore the relation between residential segregation processes and the emergence of a civic and political culture favorable to the affirmation of citizenship. The central question is to define how far social and cultural environment in the metropolis, as well as the nature of social relations and sociability operating there, create institutional, political and inter-subjective conditions favoring the development of behavior based on a consciousness of citizenship rights.
We intend to make a survey articulated with the International Social Survey Program - ISSP, in partnership with Instituto Universitário de Pesquisa do Rio de Janeiro – IUPERJ and with Ciências Sociais da Universidade de Lisboa. In accordance with the procedures of the ISSP network, the yearly 2001 meeting decided for the creation of a new module exclusively devoted to the question of citizenship, which should reflect the development of the abundant literature on the theme in the previous decade.
The international questionnaire includes not only a solid battery of 60 socio-demographic indicators, but also 60 questions― besides 4 optional ones concerning exposure to informative media― on the following themes: the duties of “good citizens”; citizenship rights; social trust; political interest, understanding, efficacy and trust; participation in associations; civic-political mobilization; evaluation of democracy and public administration; tolerance; global citizenship, etc.
The possibility of the partnership ISSP/IPPUR/IUPERJ/ICS gave the chance for the creation of the project City, citizen, citizenship, with the inclusion of questions in the questionnaire meant to evaluate this relationship. The questions were inspired in questionnaires for association in PNAD/88 and PME/96, besides the survey mentioned above, which was submitted by the Observatory of the Metropolises to almost 1000 members of the municipal boards of the metropolises of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Goiânia, Recife and Belém. The questionnaire is meant to go more deeply into the social-demographic data of the urban population, namely its residential and professional mobility, as well as forms of political socialization and unexplored dimensions of the international questionnaire, such as political participation and representation and the distance from power.
A double comparison, rarely effected in the international literature and which never been made in Brazil, will thus become possible, that is, a comparison between a metropolitan population and the rest of the country (Lisbon vs Portugal) and between several metropolitan populations (Lisbon and cities to be investigated in Brazil). The latter, in turn, will be extended to a group of reference countries still to be defined. We are thus proposing a totally original research focusing on the specific outline of the effect of cities on the Brazilian and Portuguese societies, compared with other societies. The research also investigates the exercise of correlative rights of modern citizenship.
The main objective of the survey will be to raise information which allow us to reflect on the way urban life affects and is in turn affected by the exercise of citizenship and by social movements in favor of citizenship rights. It is founded on Max Weber´s classical reference (1999) on the urban dimension of citizenship. Though it has been decisive for the first formulations of the concept it has lost importance in recent literature, especially when it is supported by survey techniques and means to capture process of citizenship constitution and exercise at a national and cross national level, as almost systematically happens since the beginning of studies on civic culture (Almond & Verba, 1963; 1980). On the contrary, the present project intends, on new empirical bases, to revisit the theses according to which the exercise of citizenship ― mostly of political citizenship― would not only be propitiated by the urban way of life, as would even constitute a manifestation of “urbanism” in the sociological sense (Wirth, 1976). Conversely, there will also be an opportunity to test counter-tendencies, according to which the evolution of the large metropolises― in short, their transformation in metropolitan areas profoundly different from the towns which led to the origin of Weber´s theory and of urban political sociology ― would now be generating effects contrary to the production of “social capital” and to the maintenance of solidarity nets favorable to conventional ways of the exercise of citizenship (Putnam, 2000).
In other words, on one hand, we have to do with the study of relations between urban life in general and metropolitan social strata especially, and, on the other, with the exercise of citizenship rights, objectively in metropolises and societies with civic traditions distinct from the liberal models which support the dominant trends of citizenship studies, such as the Brazilian and Portuguese societies.
In short, we are concerned with the study of the effects of urbanization and of sub-urbanization ― the metropolis-effect ― which we shall distinguish from the city-effect itself, that is, the fact of living in the central urban nucleus of a modern metropolis― on the same phenomenon of the exercise of citizenship rights.
Heads of the research team: Prof. Luiz Cesar de Queiroz Ribeiro – IPPUR/UFRJ, Prof. Manuel Villaverde - ICS/Universidade de Lisboa, Prof. Orlando Junior – FASE and Prof. Carlos Aurélio Pimenta de Faria – PUC Minas.
Research team: Prof. Suely Maria Ribeiro Leal – UFPE, Prof. Renato Godinho – UFOP, Prof. Solange Gayoso - UFPA, Prof. Sandra Helena Cruz - UFPA, Prof. Celene Tonella - UEM.
Products: National report with the results of the survey. A national seminar with the participation of specialists on the theme.
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